Container emergence :
When the first container ship docked in Bremen on 6 May 1966, it caused, as does any novelty, a great deal of excitement. But back then, nobody could imagine the extent of the revolution that had been set in motion. Initially, people smiled condescendingly at the "boxes", but soon it was the rationalization potential that became the focus of attention. Labor-intensive and damaging cargo handling processes at the ports were no longer necessary. Transshipment times were cut to a fraction of those previously required on general cargo ships thanks to the possibility of moving entire truck loads on to ships in the form of containers. The real revolution, however, only began as an increasing number of ports developed facilities for the transshipment, storage and clearance of containers. In parallel to this, the slot capacities for containers on ships rose from a few hundred TEU to the current figure of eight thousand TEU, and larger shipping units are now being planned. Ship speeds, which have almost doubled since containerization first got under way at the end of the 1960s, are also a significant factor that has enabled containerization to grow at the rate it has. Ever faster and more economical transportation using logistics systems that span the entire globe have made it possible to achieve the division of labor that we know today. These are synergetic processes that will continue to lead to above average growth rates in container transport.
Strength capacity of containers :
Containers are designed by manufacturers according to the standard ISO 1496-1 in such a way that the permissible payload , if homogeneously distributed over the entire loading floor, can safely be transferred to the four corner posts under all conditions of carriage.
This quality of a container implies sufficiently large section modules in longitudinal and transverse direction, for accepting the acting bending moments and the resulting tensile and compression stresses. For the tare-weight T of the container and for additional loads from accelerations during handling and transport, the ISO standard provides strength allowances, which are also reflected in test conditions.
If a load is not homogeneously distributed over the loading floor, suitable means for load distribution must be used and/or the load has to be reduced compared to the maximum permissible payload.
1- Loading the bottom in transverse direction
2- Loading the container longitudinally
The Container Specifications :
Check International Standards for Most of Marine Container specifications
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